Treating Kidney Stones in the Elderly: Innovative Approaches

Discover innovative methods for treating kidney stones in the elderly, from lifestyle changes to medical interventions.

April 15, 2024

Understanding Kidney Stones in the Elderly

In the realm of kidney health, kidney stones pose a significant challenge, particularly among the elderly population. They are one of the most painful kidney conditions, affecting one in 10 people. As an individual ages, the likelihood of developing these stones increases, and once an individual has had one kidney stone, they are more prone to developing others. This article aims to provide an overview of kidney stones and the various types that exist, shedding light on the topic of treating kidney stones in the elderly.

Overview of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. The condition is known to cause severe pain, especially when the stones begin to pass into one of the ureters. Symptoms may not manifest until this stage, and can include severe pain, blood in the urine, nausea, and vomiting. In terms of treatment, natural passage with hydration and pain management is usually the first approach. However, medical interventions such as lithotripsy (shockwave therapy) and ureteroscopy may be required if natural passage is not successful.

An interesting study analyzing the efficacy and safety of flexible ureteroscopy (f-URS) in the management of kidney stones in patients aged ≥60 years found that there were no significant differences in terms of results and complications between elderly and young patients after f-URS, except for the duration of the operation. The prolongation of operation time resulted in worse outcomes in terms of perioperative complications in patients aged ≥60 years.

Types of Kidney Stones

There are four main types of kidney stones:

  1. Calcium stones: These are the most common type of kidney stones, making up 80% of cases. Calcium stones can further be classified into oxalate and phosphate stones.
  2. Uric acid stones: These stones form when there's too much uric acid in the urine. They are more common in men and can be associated with gout or chemotherapy.
  3. Struvite stones: These stones form as a response to certain types of urinary tract infections. They can grow quite large and cause urinary obstruction.
  4. Cystine stones: These are the rarest type of kidney stones. They occur in people with a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of certain amino acids.

Each type of stone has its own causes and may require different dietary changes to prevent them from recurring.

Understanding the type of kidney stone can help guide treatment decisions and preventive measures. As such, it's vital for elderly patients to be informed about their condition and the steps they can take to manage and prevent kidney stones [2].

Symptoms and Diagnosis

Identifying and diagnosing kidney stones in the elderly is a critical step in providing appropriate treatment. It begins with a thorough understanding of the symptoms and is followed by various diagnostic procedures.

Recognizing Kidney Stone Symptoms

Kidney stones typically do not manifest symptoms until the stone begins to pass into one of the ureters, causing pain that can fluctuate in intensity. The most common symptom is severe pain in the mid-back or side, often described as one of the most intense types of pain a person can experience. Other symptoms include blood in the urine, nausea, and vomiting.

The pain caused by a kidney stone can change in location or intensity as the stone moves through the urinary tract. It's also important to note that if a kidney stone becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell. This blockage can lead to symptoms such as pain and spasms in the ureter [3].

Symptoms of Kidney Stones
Severe pain in the mid-back or side
Pain fluctuating in intensity
Blood in the urine
Nausea and vomiting
Pain and spasms in the ureter

Diagnostic Procedures for Kidney Stones

The diagnosis of kidney stones involves various procedures. In most cases, the primary healthcare provider will start with a medical history and physical examination. A patient's description of symptoms and their severity can often provide valuable clues to the presence of kidney stones.

To confirm the diagnosis, healthcare providers typically rely on diagnostic imaging tests. These may include a non-contrast helical (spiral) computed tomography (CT) scan, which is currently the gold standard for diagnosing kidney stones. Other diagnostic tests include abdominal x-rays, ultrasound, and intravenous pyelography.

If a stone is found, additional tests may be performed to determine the type of stone, including a stone analysis and a 24-hour urine collection. Identifying the type of stone can help guide treatment decisions and preventive measures to reduce the risk of future kidney stones.

It's important to note that although kidney stones can cause significant discomfort, there are effective treatment options available. For instance, research indicates that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can provide effective pain relief with fewer side effects than paracetamol or opioids for treating the intense discomfort of kidney stones.

In conclusion, recognizing the symptoms of kidney stones and seeking prompt medical attention can lead to early diagnosis and effective treatment, significantly improving the quality of life for elderly patients.

Treatment Options for Elderly Patients

When it comes to treating kidney stones in the elderly, both non-invasive and surgical interventions are available. The treatment plan is tailored according to the patient's overall health, the size, and type of kidney stone, and the patient's preferences.

Non-Invasive Treatments

Non-invasive treatments for kidney stones primarily involve medications to help pass the stone and measures to manage symptoms. Pain management is crucial, as is maintaining a high fluid intake to encourage the passage of the stone.

In some cases, a doctor may prescribe medication to aid in stone passage. These medications can help relax the muscles in the ureter, allowing the stone to pass more easily.

Surgical Interventions

For larger stones or those that cause severe symptoms, surgical interventions may be necessary. Ureteroscopy is a commonly employed method for managing kidney stones in elderly patients.

This procedure involves inserting a thin, flexible scope into the urethra and bladder, then up into the ureter to locate the stone. A small basket or laser is then used to remove or break up the stone. Ureteroscopy boasts an initial stone-free rate of 88% and a final stone-free rate of 97%. The overall complication rate was 9%, with most complications being minor [5].

The use of ureteroscopy for kidney stone treatment in the elderly population is on the rise, with the number of procedures increasing by 252% between 1996 and 2016 [5].

Moreover, ureteroscopy has shown comparable stone-free rates and complication levels to other treatments such as shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Most patients undergoing ureteroscopy are discharged quickly, with 73% being day-cases and 89% discharged within 24 hours after the procedure. However, consideration for social circumstances should be made for patients where discharge planning might be impacted.

Treatment decisions should be individualized, taking into account the patient's overall health status, the size and location of the stone, and the patient's personal preferences and social situation. It's essential to discuss all available options and their potential risks and benefits with the healthcare provider.

Management Strategies

Managing kidney stones, especially in the elderly, involves a multifaceted approach that combines lifestyle modifications and dietary adjustments. These strategies aim to reduce the recurrence of kidney stones and alleviate the discomfort associated with this condition.

Lifestyle Modifications

One crucial lifestyle modification for treating kidney stones in the elderly is increasing fluid consumption. High fluid intake is essential for those with kidney stones, with a recommended urine volume of at least 2-2.5 liters daily to reduce the risk of recurrent stone formation. A randomized controlled trial demonstrated that generous water intake could halve the risk of stone recurrence.

However, the type of water consumed can also impact stone formation. Drinking water varies widely in calcium and magnesium content depending on geographic location and source. While several epidemiological studies found no significant correlation between water hardness and incident stone risk, small metabolic studies found increasing water hardness to be associated with increased urinary calcium excretion among healthy individuals and stone formers.

Dietary Approaches

Specific dietary adjustments can also play a significant role in managing kidney stones. For instance, certain fruit juices can affect stone formation due to their varying content of volume, citrate, and alkali. Orange juice, due to its high content of potassium citrate, can increase urine pH and citrate levels compared to water, while the effects of lemonade therapy on urinary citrate are mixed. Grapefruit juice can increase urinary citrate but also increase urinary oxalate and stone risk. Cranberry juice has had conflicting effects on urinary parameters and cannot be recommended for stone prevention [6].

Tea consumption, particularly black and green tea, has been associated with a decreased risk of incident stones in several large prospective cohort studies.

On the other hand, sugar-sweetened sodas have been associated with an increased risk of stone formation, while artificially sweetened colas and non-colas have only marginally and inconsistently been associated with an increased risk. Cessation of soft drink intake among regular soda drinkers resulted in a lower risk of stone recurrence [6].

Beverage Effect on Kidney Stones
Water Reduces stone recurrence
Orange Juice Increases urine pH and citrate
Lemonade Mixed effects on urinary citrate
Grapefruit Juice Increases urinary citrate and oxalate
Cranberry Juice Conflicting effects on urinary parameters
Tea (Black, Green) Decreases risk of incident stones
Sugar-Sweetened Sodas Increases risk of stone formation
Artificially Sweetened Colas Marginally increases risk
Artificially Sweetened Non-Colas Marginally increases risk

Implementing these lifestyle and dietary modifications can play a significant role in the management of kidney stones among the elderly. However, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before making any significant changes to one's diet or lifestyle.

Medical Interventions

When treating kidney stones in the elderly, medical interventions play a significant role. These can include medications to alleviate symptoms and aid in the passing of stones, as well as preventive measures to reduce the risk of recurrence.

Medications for Kidney Stones

Several medications can be used to manage kidney stones, depending on their size and composition. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently employed to provide effective pain relief, as they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins, reducing pain receptors' activation and renal blood flow [4].

For stones less than 10 mm in diameter, medical expulsive therapy (MET) using alpha blocker medication, such as tamsulosin, may be offered to aid in spontaneous passage through the urinary tract. However, the use of tamsulosin is off-label and can rarely cause complications such as intraoperative floppy iris syndrome.

In addition to these symptomatic treatments, medications, such as diuretics (e.g., thiazides), potassium citrate, and allopurinol, may be prescribed to prevent kidney stone recurrence in high-risk individuals. Thiazides reduce urinary calcium excretion, while potassium citrate helps alkalinize urine and increase urinary citrate concentration. Allopurinol is used for patients with hyperuricosuria.

Probiotics for Kidney Stone Prevention

Emerging research suggests that probiotics – specifically oxalate-degrading bacteria such as Oxalobacter spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Bifidobacterium spp. – may help prevent kidney stone formation. These probiotics can degrade intestinal oxalate and reduce urinary oxalate excretion, potentially decreasing the likelihood of stone formation [7].

While more research is needed, these findings suggest that incorporating probiotics into the diet could be a valuable addition to a comprehensive approach to preventing kidney stones in the elderly. This approach could include dietary modifications, lifestyle changes, and regular medical check-ups to monitor kidney function and detect any new stone formation early.

Through a combination of effective symptom management, preventive strategies, and routine medical care, it's possible to manage kidney stones effectively in elderly patients. However, it's important that each individual's treatment plan be personalized to their unique needs and health status. Always consult with a healthcare professional before starting any new medication or dietary supplement.

Preventive Measures

Prevention is often the best approach when it comes to treating kidney stones in the elderly. By implementing certain lifestyle changes and adhering to specific dietary recommendations, the risk of kidney stone formation can be significantly reduced.

Fluid Intake Recommendations

High fluid consumption is essential for preventing kidney stone formation. It is recommended to achieve a urine volume of at least 2-2.5 L daily to reduce the risk of recurrent stone formation. The AUA, EAU, CUA, and UAA consistently recommend maintaining a urine output of >2.0-2.5 L/day with a fluid intake of 2.5-3.0 L/day.

Fluid Type Effects
Water Varies widely in calcium and magnesium content, no significant correlation between water hardness and incident stone risk (NCBI)
Fruit Juices Good source of volume, citrate, and alkali, all of which should reduce the risk of stone formation. Orange juice increases urine pH and citrate due to its high content of potassium citrate (NCBI)
Tea Greater consumption is associated with a decreased risk of incident stones, particularly black and green tea (NCBI)
Sugar-sweetened Sodas Increases risk of stone formation, while artificially sweetened colas and non-colas have only marginally and inconsistently increased risk. Cessation of soda intake lowers risk of stone recurrence (NCBI)

Lifestyle Changes for Kidney Stone Prevention

In addition to fluid intake, other lifestyle and habit modifications can aid in the prevention of kidney stones. These include maintaining a normal body mass index (BMI), engaging in physical activity, and avoiding cigarette smoking. Working in a high-temperature environment can increase the risk of kidney stone formation, thus increasing fluid intake to offset dehydration associated with sweating is important.

Dietary management also plays a crucial role in preventing kidney stone formation. Strategies include limiting sodium intake to ≤100 mEq/day, limiting oxalate-rich foods, increasing consumption of citrus fruits, and considering lime powder supplementation.

By taking these preventive measures, the elderly can reduce their risk of developing kidney stones and maintain their overall health and well-being. As with any health matters, it's crucial to consult with healthcare professionals for personalized advice and treatment plans.

References

[1]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6684111/

[2]: https://getvipcare.com/blog/kidney-stones-in-older-adults/

[3]: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/kidney-stones/symptoms-causes/syc-20355755

[4]: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/kidney-stones-what-are-your-treatment-options-2019071817350

[5]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6092651/

[6]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9410446/

[7]: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10201681/

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